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Welcome to the webpage of the module “Cyber-Physical Programming”, edition 2021/2022.

Cyber-physical systems are networks of computational devices that closely interact with physical processes in order to reach a prescribed goal; for example a desired velocity, a desired temperature or, more generally, a desired energy level. They range from small medical devices, such as pacemakers and insulin pumps, to networks of autonomous vehicles and district-wide smart grids. This module is devoted to such systems.

The main learning goal is two-fold: 1) to prepare the student to a
**disciplined** way of developing and analysing cyber-physical systems,
by presenting their **basic principles**, adequate **models of
computation**, and respective **tools**; 2) and to introduce the student
to the main limitations of the area’s state-of-the-art
– via pedagogical illustrations extracted from real world-scenarios
involving e.g. cruise controllers, sampling algorithms, and timed
variants of concurrent algorithms.

At the end of the module, the student will:

- know the basic principles and representative models of cyber-physical computation;
- have a broad knowledge of languages, tools, and techniques for engineering cyber-physical systems;
- be proficient with the tools Uppaal and Lince, which cover model checking, testing, and simulation for cyber-physical systems;
- be able to understand in which ways the state-of-the-art (of cyber-physical computation and engineering) is limited, and the potential outcomes of solving these limitations.

- Labelled transition systems, their role as semantic objects, and corresponding notions of equivalence;
- Timed labelled transition systems and corresponding notions of equivalence, composition, and synchronisation. Zeno behaviour;
- From theory to practice: the tool Uppaal;
- A while-language and its operational semantics;
- A hybrid while-language and its operational semantics;
- From theory to practice: the tool Lince;
- Cyber-physical behaviour as yet another computational effect: the notion of a monad, the hybrid monad, and monad combination.

17 Feb. 2022 | Introduction to the module and its dynamics (slides) |

24 Feb. 2022 | Labelled transition systems and their role as semantics objects. The Calculus of Communicating Systems (slides) |

03 Mar. 2022 | Exercises concerning communication and synchronisation. Observational Behaviour and Observational Equivalence (slides) |

10 Mar. 2022 | Introduction to timed automata (slides) |

17 Mar. 2022 | Continuation of the previous lecture; introduction to observational equivalence for timed automata (slides). Introduction to UPPAAL. |

24 Mar. 2022 | Spring School on Communicating Systems |

31 Mar. 2022 | Extra features of Uppaal. The logic CTL and its application to the verification of Timed Systems (slides). The adventurer's problem (description) |

7 Apr. 2022 | Presentation and discussion of the first practical assignment. Recalling Haskell (file). |

21 Apr. 2022 | A simple While-language and its semantics (slides). |

28 Apr. 2022 | A hybrid While-language and its semantics (slides). |

05 May 2022 | A zoo of hybrid programs and common mistakes in hybrid programming (slides). |

12 May 2022 | Introduction to the simply-typed lambda calculus (slides). |

19 May 2022 | Integration of algebraic operations in the simply-typed lambda calculus (slides). |

26 May 2022 | Several examples of monads and their algebraic operations at work (code). |

Assessment will consist of the following items:

- Individual assynchronous test (20%); TPC-1, TPC-2.
- Group assignment: modelling and analysis of a cyber-physical system via Uppaal (40%); TP-1.
- Group assignment: modelling and analysis of a cyber-physical system via Haskell (40%); TP-2 and code.

Rajeev Alur and David L Dill.
A theory of timed automata.
*Theoretical computer science*, 126(2):183--235, 1994.
[ bib ]

Thomas A Henzinger.
The theory of hybrid automata.
In *Verification of digital and hybrid systems*, pages 265--292.
Springer, 2000.
[ bib ]

Glynn Winskel.
*The formal semantics of programming languages: an introduction*.
MIT press, 1993.
[ bib ]

Sergey Goncharov, Renato Neves, and José Proença.
Implementing hybrid semantics: From functional to imperative.
In *International Colloquium on Theoretical Aspects of
Computing*, pages 262--282. Springer, 2020.
[ bib ]

Miran Lipovaca.
*Learn you a haskell for great good!: a beginner's guide*.
no starch press, 2011.
[ bib ]

Philip Wadler.
Monads for functional programming.
In *International School on Advanced Functional Programming*,
pages 24--52. Springer, 1995.
[ bib ]

*This file was generated by
bibtex2html 1.99.*

Bart Jacobs.
*Introduction to coalgebra*, volume 59.
Cambridge University Press, 2017.
[ bib ]

Chucky Ellison and Grigore Rosu.
An executable formal semantics of c with applications.
*ACM SIGPLAN Notices*, 47(1):533--544, 2012.
[ bib ]

*This file was generated by
bibtex2html 1.99.*

The day and time for appointments is Wednesday afternoon (but please send an email the day before if you wish to meet). If you prefer you can also just send an email with your questions to Renato Neves